How are watches made? Step-by-step Guide

how are watches made


Watches have a rich history that dates back centuries. From the earliest sundials and hourglasses to our modern-day digital watches, they have come a long way. Timekeeping has been an essential part of human watch history, allowing us to measure time and keep track of our daily lives. Creating a watch is complex and requires great skill and craftsmanship. 

In this blog, we will explore the various steps involved in the following:

  • Watchmaking process.
  • Design and prototyping.
  • Manufacturing the watch case.
  • Making the watch movement.
  • Assembling the watch.
  • Conducting quality control tests.

We will also discuss the materials used in watchmaking and appreciate the craftsmanship involved in creating these intricate timepieces.

Watchmaking Process: How are watches made

The watchmaking process involves several key stages

  • Design and prototyping.
  • Materials selection.
  • Manufacturing the watch case.
  • Making the watch movement.
  • Assembling the watch. 

The design and prototyping stage involves sketching the watch design, creating a CAD model, and 3D printing a prototype. 

The materials used in watchmaking include various metals for the watch case and different types of crystals for the watch face, with specific materials for the watch movement, such as gears and springs. 

The manufacturing of the watch case involves:

  • Cutting and forming the case from metal sheets.
  • Shaping it.
  • Polishing it to a high-quality finish. 

The watch movement is created by crafting the gears and springs and assembling them into a precise mechanism. 

Finally, the watch is assembled by adding the watch hands, inserting the watch movement into the case, attaching the watch face, and adding the watch strap.

Design and Prototyping

watch design & prototyping

Sketching the watch design

The first step in creating a watch is designing the watch’s appearance and functionality. Watchmakers begin by sketching the watch design, which serves as a blueprint for the watch’s production. 

Creating a CAD model

These sketches are then used to create a 3D model using computer-aided design (CAD) software. They allow the watchmaker to see the design from every angle and make any necessary adjustments. Creating the CAD model involves precise measurements and calculations to ensure the watch’s components fit together correctly.

3D printing a prototype

Once the design is finalized, the watchmaker creates a prototype using a 3D printer. This allows the watchmaker to test the design and make necessary adjustments before moving on to the manufacturing phase. The prototype is a physical representation of the watch’s design, allowing the watchmaker to assess its functionality, aesthetics, and durability.

Making adjustments to the design

Design and prototyping are crucial stages in the watchmaking process, as they determine the final appearance and functionality of the watch. The design must be visually appealing, comfortable, and functional regarding timekeeping accuracy and other features. The prototyping stage allows the watchmaker to test and refine the design. They ensure that the final product meets the desired quality and performance standards.

Materials Used in Watchmaking

Materials Used in Watchmaking

The selection of materials is a critical aspect of watchmaking, as it determines the final product’s quality, durability, and appearance. Various metals are used in watchmaking for different watch parts, such as the watch case, watch crystal, and watch movement.

Metals used for the watch case

The watch case is the outer protective shell that houses the watch’s movement and other components. It is typically made from metals such as stainless steel, gold, or titanium, known for their strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion. The type of metal used can affect the watch’s weight, durability, and overall appearance. 

For example, stainless steel is commonly used for watch cases due to its affordability, strength, and resistance to corrosion. Gold is often used for luxury watches due to its unique and luxurious appearance. Titanium is known for its lightness and durability, making it a popular choice for sports and outdoor watches.

Types of watch crystals

The watch crystal is the transparent cover that protects the watch face and allows us to read the time. It can be made from different materials, each with advantages and disadvantages. The most common materials used for watch crystals are sapphire, mineral glass, and acrylic.

Sapphire crystals are the most durable and scratch-resistant, making them highly desirable for high-end luxury watches. They are made from synthetic sapphire, created through a complex process of crystallization and cutting.

Materials used for the watch movement

The materials used for the watch movement play a crucial role in the overall performance and accuracy of the timepiece. Typically, watch movements are made from durable materials capable of withstanding the constant movement and friction required for accurate timekeeping.

One of the critical materials used in watch movements is brass. This corrosion-resistant alloy is often used for making gears, pinions, and other small components. Brass is known for its excellent machinability, allowing for the precisely manufacturing intricate watch parts. 

Stainless steel is another common material used in watch movements, especially for more significant components such as main plates and bridges. Stainless steel is known for its strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion, making it ideal for use in the inner workings of a watch.

In addition to metals, watch movements also incorporate various types of synthetic jewels. These jewels are typically made from synthetic corundum or synthetic ruby. They are used as bearings to reduce friction between moving parts of the watch movement.

Synthetic jewels are highly polished and incredibly hard. They ensure smooth movement of gears and pinions and improve the accuracy and longevity of the watch.

Other materials used in watch movements include various synthetic or natural lubricants. They are applied to reduce friction and wear between moving parts. These lubricants are carefully selected and applied during assembly to ensure optimal watch movement performance.

Overall, the materials used in the watch movement are carefully chosen for their durability, strength, machinability, and resistance to wear and corrosion. All of them contribute to the precision and reliability of the timepiece.

Manufacturing the watch case

Manufacturing the watch case

The watch case is a critical component of a watch. It protects the delicate internal mechanisms and gives the watch its aesthetic appeal. The manufacturing process of the watch case involves several steps, including cutting, forming, and polishing.

Cutting the watch case from metal sheets

The first step in manufacturing the watch case is to cut the case shape from metal sheets. Various metals, such as stainless steel and titanium, or precious metals like gold or platinum, can be used to make watch cases. The metal sheets are carefully cut into the desired shape using precision tools and machinery, considering the watch’s design and dimensions.

Forming the case shape

Once the metal sheets are cut into the desired shape, they are formed to give them the three-dimensional shape of the watch case. This is done using techniques such as bending, folding, or pressing the metal sheets, depending on the design and materials used. Skilled artisans carefully shape the metal sheets to create the intricate curves and angles of the watch case, ensuring that it matches the design specifications.

Polishing the watch case

After the case shape is formed, the watch case is polished to give it a smooth and shiny finish. Polishing is a crucial step in the watchmaking process. It enhances the watch’s aesthetics and gives it a high-quality look.

Different polishing techniques are used, including hand or machine polishing. Depending on the desired finish and the materials used in the watch case.

Making the watch movement

The watch movement, also known as the caliber, is the watch’s heart. It is responsible for keeping time and powering the watch’s various functions. The manufacturing process of the watch movement involves several intricate steps:

  • Creating gears and springs.
  • Assembling the movement.
  • Testing for accuracy.


Creating the gears and springs

Gears and springs are essential to watch movement components that work together to ensure accurate timekeeping. Gears are carefully crafted using precision tools and machinery. Their teeth are cut to precise specifications to ensure smooth movement. 

Springs, however, are carefully coiled and shaped to provide the necessary tension for the gears to operate smoothly. The materials used for gears and springs can vary depending on the watch’s complexity and function. High-quality materials like brass, stainless steel, or even precious metals like gold are used for premium watches.

Assembling the movement

Once the gears and springs are created, the watch movement is carefully assembled by skilled craftsmen. The gears, springs, and other components are meticulously arranged and aligned according to the design and function of the watch. This process requires precision and expertise, as even a slight misalignment or mistake can affect the watch’s accuracy and performance.

Testing the movement for accuracy

After the movement is assembled, it undergoes rigorous testing to ensure accuracy. Watchmakers use specialized equipment to measure the movement’s performance, including its timekeeping accuracy and power reserve. Adjustments are made to ensure that the movement meets the required standards.

Assembling the watch

Assembling the watch

Once the watch movement is completed and tested for accuracy, then the watch is assembled by combining the movement with the watch case and other components to create the final product.

Adding the watch hands

The watch hands are carefully attached to the movement, indicating the hours, minutes, and seconds. The watch hands are typically made from thin metal. They are meticulously aligned and secured to ensure they move smoothly and accurately.

Inserting the watch movement

The watch movement is then inserted into the watch case, with the gears and other components fitting snugly inside the case. The movement is carefully positioned and secured in place to ensure proper operation.

Attaching the watch face

The watch face, also known as the dial, is attached to the watch case.

Adding the watch strap

Once the watch movement and dial are securely attached to the watch case, the watch strap is added. Watch straps can be made from various materials, such as leather, metal, rubber, or fabric.

They are attached to the watch case using specialized techniques like stitching or lugs. The watch strap serves as a functional component for wearing the watch. It adds to the overall aesthetics and comfort of the timepiece.

Quality control

Quality control is crucial in the watchmaking process to ensure that the final product meets the highest quality, accuracy, and durability standards.

Inspecting the watch for defects

Each watch undergoes thorough inspection for defects in the external appearance and internal mechanisms. Skilled watchmakers carefully examine the watch case, dial, hands, and strap for cosmetic or functional defects. Any imperfections or inconsistencies are identified to ensure the watch meets the required quality standards.

Testing the watch for accuracy

The watch is then tested for accuracy to keep time precise. This involves placing the watch in different positions and measuring its timekeeping performance. Adjustments are made to ensure that the watch meets the desired accuracy standards.

Final polishing and packaging

Once the watch has passed the quality control inspections and testing, it undergoes a final polishing process to ensure its flawless and lustrous appearance. The watch is carefully packaged, often in a protective box or case. Along with any accompanying documents, such as the warranty card or user manual, to be ready for sale or distribution.


In conclusion, the manufacturing process of a watch involves several intricate steps, from cutting and forming the watch case to creating the gears and springs for the movement, assembling the watch, and conducting thorough quality control inspections. 

Skilled artisans, specialized tools, and machinery ensure that each watch meets the required quality standards for accuracy, durability, and aesthetics. The result is a meticulously crafted timepiece that is a functional instrument for telling time and a piece of art and craftsmanship that future generations can cherish.

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